"The earth moves constantly about its own axis and also round the sun, which is stationary. This theory espoused by Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo,
Allah had blessed Aalahazrat with knowledge of great sciences.Aalahazrat wrote about 50 different types of knowledge and was an expert in different sections of modren sciences.
AlaHazrat was a great expert of physics. Mathematician, Astronomer , Astrologer and an Economist.
He was such a professional astronomer and astrologer that he would set his clock just by observing the sun in the day and the stars at night. The time that he would set would always be precise and accurate with not even a minute difference. AlaHazrat was also a unique and remarkable mathematician.
The earth moves constantly about its own axis and also round the sun, which is stationary. This theory espoused by Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo, gained popularity all over the world. The theory says that the speed of rotation of earth is 1036 miles per hour i.e. 17.26 miles per minute i.e.30389 yards per minute i.e.506.4 yards per second. Against this theory, nobody could speak. It was A‘lahazrat who challenged it and declared:-
"The Islamic principle is that the sky and earth are stationary and the planets rotate. It is sun that moves round the earth; it is not earth that moves round the sun."
In order to substantiate it, A‘lahazrat put forward two-tier arguments. First, he quoted a number of verses from Holy Qur’an and Hadith, the translation of some of which is given below:
1. The movement of Sun and Moon is according to a course.
2. The sun and the moon are sailing within a circle.
3. The moon and the sun were besieged for you which are constantly moving.
[For detailed study, please see "Nuzool-i-Ayat-i-Furqan Besukoon-i-Zameen-o-Aasman" of A‘lahazrat written in 1339 A.H, published from Riza Academy, Bombay.]
It is thus; quite clear that the sun moves and it is obligatory upon every Muslim to believe it because it is what Allah ordains us to believe. In light of Holy Qur’an and Hadith, the theory of rotation of earth is absolutely wrong. Such arguments were more than enough for Muslims but for Muslims only.
For others, A‘lahazrat presented a number of arguments based on scientific understanding — technical and otherwise. A‘lahazrat wrote several books on this subject. In 1920, he presented his book "Fauz-i-Mubin Dar Radd-i-Harkat-i-Zamin", Published from Idara Sunni Dunia, Saudagran, Bareilly. This book contains 105 arguments, dozens of diagrams and lots of calculations in refuting the said theory. Out of 105, I am giving below gist of only five logical and axiomatic arguments which are quite easy and which can be understood by a man of average intelligence.
1. If a heavy stone is thrown up straight, it would fall on the same place from where it was thrown, whereas according to the theory of movement of earth, it must not happen. According to it, if the earth were moving towards east, the stone would fall in west because during the time it went up and came down, that place of earth from where the stone was thrown up, due to movement of earth, would slip away towards east. Suppose, the process of stone going up and coming down took a time of 5 seconds, then according to the said speed of movement of earth, that is, 506.4 yards per second, the earth would slip away towards east by 2532 yards i.e. about one and a half miles In other words, the stone must fall in the west of that place (place of throwing up the stone) at a distance of about one and a half miles but actually it would fall on the same place from where it was thrown up. It shows that the said theory of movement of Earth is wrong.
2. If two stones are thrown away at the same time and with the same power — one towards east and the other towards west, then what should happen according to the said theory of movement of earth, is that the stone going towards west must appear to be going very fast and that the stone going towards east very lazy. Suppose the power of throwing the stone is 19 yards within three seconds, then the respective stones would fall in the east and west at a distance of 19 yards only but according to the said theory, by the time the westward stone would cover a distance of 19 yards in three seconds, the place from where the stones were thrown, would slip away towards east by 1519 yards (506.4 x 3) In this way, it must fall at a distance of 1519+19 i.e. 1538 yards, whereas it would actually fall only at a distance of 19 yards. Similarly, the other stone going towards east must fall in the west at a distance of 1519-19 i.e. 1500 yards, whereas actually it would fall in the very east at a distance of 19 yards only. It shows that the said theory of Movement of Earth is wrong.
3. Suppose, from a tree, two birds fly with equal speed and for equal period, one of them goes towards east and the other towards west. Now if their flying speed is equal to the speed of movement of earth, that is, if they fly at a speed of 1036 miles per hour, then according to the said theory, bird going towards west must fly at a speed of 1036+1036 i.e. 2072 miles per hour (being its own speed added by the speed of movement of earth), while the bird going towards east would not be able to move even an inch as its speed after adjusting the speed of movement of earth (both being equal) would become zero. On the contrary, what would actually happen is that the bird going eastward would go in the east to a distance of 1036 miles during an hour and the bird going westward would go in the west at a distance of 1036 miles. It shows that the said theory of movement of Earth is wrong.
For a bird, the abnormal speed of flight of 1036 miles per hour has been assumed only to bring it parallel to the speed of movement of earth and simply to prove that according to the said theory, the bird flying towards east would not be able to cover any distance even if it comes abreast of a plane in the matter of speed and flies at a rate of 1036 miles per hour.
4. If it is intended to kill a bird appearing at a distance of 10 yards in the air from a particular place and suppose it takes two seconds in stringing the bow and shooting the arrow, then by the time the arrow is shot, that particular place would slip away within these two seconds at a distance of 1013 yards at a speed of 506.4 yards per second being the speed of movement of earth and thus the arrow can never reach the target, whereas it may be taken for granted that the arrow would hit the target. It shows that the theory of movement of Earth is wrong.
5. If a bird is sitting on a pillar near its nest just at a distance of one yard, even then it can never reach the nest, because in order to reach the nest, the bird shall have to fly — may it be for a second or part thereof. The fact is that, the bird can never surpass the speed of 1036 miles per hour, which is said to be the speed of movement of earth. It shows that the theory of Movement of the Earth is wrong.
Need you go yet for further arguments? Go on thinking over plane, gun, cannon, missile squad and so forth.
Prof. Zia al-din was the Vice Chancellor of Aligarh University and Sayyid Sulayman Ashraf was Professor of Islamic Studies. Prof. Zia al-din was a noted Mathematician of India. Once he got confused over a question of mathematics. The question was so complicated that despite all efforts, it remained unsolved. Insofar as, Prof. Zia al-din made up his mind to go to Germany in order to consult his German counterparts. Meanwhile, Prof. Sulayman Ashraf advised him to approach
A‘lahazrat at Bareilly on this issue. Prof. Zia al-din raised certain queries about A‘lahazrat. On being told that A‘lahazrat was Maulana [Mawlavi], he paid no heed and began to make all arrangements for his trip to Germany.
However, Prof. Sulayman Ashraf did not change his stand and went on insisting that he should visit Bareilly. Upon this, Prof. Zia al-din said: "I admit what you say. I admit that he is a great man. But it is not a question of Islamic science; it is a question of mathematics. What has a Mawlawi to do with mathematics? What a deriding it is to go to him for such a question which is a gordian knot even for mathematicians." Even so Prof. Sulayman Ashraf did not retract at all and argued: "As compared to Germany, Bareilly is at an arm’s length and direct train is there. What ails you if you go there first for my sake? If you get satisfaction, all well. If not, you are at liberty to proceed to Germany or anywhere you like." Then, Prof. Zia al-din said: "If you so insist, let me see A‘lahazrat".
Finally both the gentlemen reached Bareilly and met A‘lahazrat. A‘lahazrat was running somewhat indisposed. However, A‘lahazrat asked Prof. Zia al-din, ">What brings you here?" "In connection with a question of mathematics", he replied. "What is that", A‘lahazrat asked. Prof. Zia al-din said: "The question is not so easy. I shall tell you when you are at ease," ">Even so, what is that?" — A‘lahazrat remarked. Prof. Zia al-din then went on putting up his lengthy and uphill question. By the time the question was finished A‘lahazrat replied forthwith: "Its answer is such and such." Hearing the answer at such a slip shod, Prof. Zia al-din was all-agape. He was overwhelmed with the charisma of A‘lahazrat’s talent. He said: "I heard of Ilm-i-Ladunni (inspired knowledge) but today I have seen it with my own eyes. Glorious mathematicians are vainglorious. The real genius is A‘lahazrat who took no time to solve an insoluble question for which I have been languishing since long." Prof. Zia al-din, thus, took a sigh of relief and thanked Prof. Sulayman Ashraf for his kind and fruitful guidance.
Thrilling news appeared in the English Daily "Express" of 18th October 1919 published from Bankipur, Patna (Bihar). It was regarding a unique and dreadful forecast made by Prof. Albert of USA, who happened to be an astronomer and mathematician of international repute. Its gist was as under:-
"On 17th December, 1919, six planets which are most powerful viz. Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn and Neptune will be in conjunction and the Sun will come in opposite direction of these planets. These planets will fetch the sun towards them with all their gravity. The result will be that the magnetic properties of these planets will pierce into the sun and it will inflict a hole into the sun, which will be in the shape of a big dagger. And, such a stain on the sun will be visible which everybody would see on 17th December 1919 with naked eyes. Prof. Albert further predicted that conjunction of such planets, which was not witnessed for the last twenty centuries, would cause disorder in the air and it would bring about big storms, terrible rains and powerful earthquakes. The earth will return to its normal position after several weeks."
The news spread like wild fire. Panic gripped the whole world. Some of the Muslims fell prey to it as well. Mawlana Zafaruddin of Bihar, a disciple and caliph of A‘lahazrat apprised A‘lahazrat of such forecast of Prof. Albert. Thereupon, A‘lahazrat wrote an article belying the forecast tooth and nail brandishing it as baseless and bogus, which was published in the Monthly "Al Riza" from Bareilly. This contradictory article too gained equal publicity. A‘lahazrat was challenging Prof. Albert. A Mawlawi was challenging an astronomer. An Indian was challenging an American. It was towards the middle of November and the people were waiting impatiently for 17th December. In order to allay the fear on the part of his Muslim brethren, A‘lahazrat rose to the occasion and chose to get his article published. A‘lahazrat consoled the frightened Muslims and advised them:-
"Muslims: be afraid of Allah. Don't be afraid of Albert. His forecast is false and baseless. It is neither desirable nor permissible for you to pay any heed to it".
Interestingly enough, A‘lahazrat gave as many as seventeen arguments to disprove the said forecast. The arguments advanced by A‘lahazrat are astronomical and technical. Men of common understanding cannot understand. So, it is of no use to reproduce them in full. However, those who can and those who wish to make a deep study of these arguments, may please go through the booklet "Prof. Albert F. Porta Ki Peshin Goi Ka Rad" published from Maktaba Gharib Nawaz, Allahabad.
However, to present something for a common, man, I would like to point out that A‘lahazrat argued vehemently that the very basis of such a forecast was wrong. The forecast was based on the principle that "sun is stationary and the earth moves around the sun". In the light of Holy Qur’an, A‘lahazrat declared:-
"The sun and moon do move according to their course. They are sailing within a circle. It is earth (not sun) that is stationary around which the sun and other planets revolve"
According to the working of Prof. Albert, the mutual distance of six planets as on 17th December 1919 worked out to 26 degree, whereas A‘lahazrat presented a detailed chart depicting the real position of such planets as on 17th December, according to which, such mutual distance worked out to 112 degree. There was such a lot of difference between the two.
Prof. Albert gave all the weight to Law of Gravitation. Confuting it, A‘lahazrat argued that the said conjunction did not conform with the Law of Gravitation as well. Either of the two shall have to be discarded then. Have all the planets made a pact to attack the sun alone? Why will they not attack each other, A‘lahazrat quipped. If the Law of Gravitation is correct, it is bound to affect all — more effect upon what is nearer and sharper effect upon what is weaker. When the attack of six planets can cause such an injury to the sun, then why the Saturn could not be destroyed by the gravity of the remaining five planets, especially when the Saturn is smaller than Sun by thousand times, A‘lahazrat asked.
Mars is smaller than Saturn. Mercury is the smallest of all. So in this way, these are bound to be shattered into pieces. What an absurd it is to believe that the weaker might not suffer at all and the strongest (sun) will lose the battle, A‘lahazrat argued. Even on the basis of the Law of Gravitation, there can be no such conjunction of planets, A‘lahazrat declared. That is, A‘lahazrat beat Albert from both ends.
By and by, the time passed and the crucial day of 17th December arrived. As the sun rose, the panic-stricken people began to take it as Doomsday. The routine life went to standstill. Clouds of horror hovered heavily. Some people laid hope in Albert. Some people laid hope in A‘lahazrat. The names of Albert and A‘lahazrat were running on the lips and tips of one and all. By grace of Allah, the day went off peacefully, the sun set setting the pandemonium at rest. Nothing untoward took place anywhere. The position of Albert was all burst.
Everybody witnessed that what A‘lahazrat had observed and declared, came true word by word. It bagged three cheers for A‘lahazrat. Prof. Albert also conceded the talent of A‘lahazrat in the field of astronomy.
Thus, we can come to the conclusion that a person who challenged the great scientists like Copernicus Kepler, Galileo, Newton etc, must have been a great scientist himself. I would like to add that what is required to disprove the theories of these scientists, A‘lahazrat has done ahead of it but sooner or later its credit will be bagged by someone else who will win the fight in the name of a scientist for, A‘lahazrat is better known as a Muslim theologian rather than a scientist.